Цви Марк. Музыка и мистика / Zvi Mark. Music and Mysticism

Rabbi Nachman from Bratslav was a Chassidic rabbi, he was born in 1772, and died in 1810 He lived in Ukraine

He led the current in Hasidism, which during his lifetime and many more years after that It was small, but nowadays, in the past few decades, Bratslav Hassidism has flourished extremely loudly Especially in Israel Now there are tens of thousands of Bratslav Hasidim, every year they make a pilgrimage to the tomb of Rabbi Nachman in Uman on Rosh Hashanah Rabbi Nachman became, in fact, an Israeli cultural hero His teachings affect many people who see him as a source of inspiration and mentor, but are not at the same time pronounced Bratslav Hassids

Rabbi Nachman was a pioneer in the field of Hasidic thought, and “Selected teachings of the teacher of our river Nachman "- a very important book in the history of Hasidic thought Rabbi Nachman left a mark in literature His “Book of Parables,” published in 1815, is an independent and original work of Hassidic literature She played an important role in the history of modern Hebrew literature

Today we talk about communication p Nahman with music and song, a theme that occupies a lot of space in his teaching This topic applies to practical activities, to the method of worship, which he proposed to his students, and to his messianic aspirations, to the image of the messiah, and to many other aspects of his teaching But tonight we will devote “The Songs of Herbs” to the theme of music and chants that exist in creation, the r Nachman

Let's start with the words p Nachman from the book Praises Rabbi Nachman “One person from Zlatopol was telling me about the time when our teacher, of blissful memory (referring to p Nachman), He prayed early in the morning, and then sent his daughter Sarah, may her years last, to call this person to our teacher, a blessed memory Our teacher told him, blessed memory: "Come with me, take a walk

" And they went out of the city, and when they were walking among the grasses, our teacher raised his voice and said: "If only you would be honored to hear the sound of the songs and the hymns of the grass – as each blade of grass raises a song Almighty without any calculation, without extraneous thoughts, without expecting any reward! How wonderful and worthy it is to listen to their song, and among them it is very good to serve the Most High in awe " Rabbi Nachman urges his disciple to pay attention to the praise of the Lord, the emerging and rising from creation, from nature, from trees and grasses In addition, he tells him that his personal prayer, worship, may be more beautiful and worthier, if he hears songs of herbs At first glance, thus r Nachman continues a long tradition of Jewish and non-Jewish philosophers, for many years invoking man through a look at nature is filled with admiration and love for God and thus strengthen your religious ministry

Take, for example, the words of Maimonides Maimonides, at first glance, takes a completely different from p Nahman position in the world of Jewish thought This is a rational philosopher, a representative of the Jewish philosophy against which zealously acted r Nachman

But Maimonides writes, it seems, about something similar “This perfect and terrible God is commanded to be loved and feared, as it is said: “Thou shalt love the Lord thy God,” and it is also said: “The Lord thy God, fear” Which way leads to love and fear of Him? – When a person thoughtfully considers the miraculous and great creations and creatures of Him and sees in them the manifestation of infinite, immense wisdom, – he immediately embraces his love, and he glorifies and exalts Him and ignites the desire to know God is great, as David said: "My soul thirsts for God, the living God" At the same time, when a person thinks about these things, he will reject, and his fear and horror will seize when realizes that he is a petty, insignificant creature, standing in all the insignificance of his mind before a perfect mind, as David said: “When I look at the heavens, the creation of Your hands What is a man that you remember about him?” Based on the foregoing, I will explain in general terms the creation of the Lord of the Worlds in order to open the gates for the love of the Lord to those who understand; as the sages said about love: " and through this you will know about the One who said, and the world arose" Everything created by the Saints, He is blessed in the world, can be divided into three rubrics

The first includes creations formed by the combination of matter and ideas ", etc At first glance, p

Nachman continues the ideas of Maimonides However, if you look closely, it turns out that p Nachman goes the other way There is a significant difference between the words of Maimonides and the words of r Nachman

When Maimonides calls a person to look at the creation, what does he call to pay attention to? Rambam emphasizes the wisdom of creation He wants man to admire the world created wisely, by how much intelligence in every detail And so that, upon seeing this, he would be filled admiration for the wisdom of God, and that he thus come to the love of God But Rabbi Nachman wants a person to pay attention to something completely different He wants man to pay attention to the song that exists in creation, not wisdom, not on the rational, but on the aesthetic, poetic side of it

He wants a man to join to this singing coming from creation And this seems to be something completely different We see the same thing with other medieval philosophers Let us look, for example, at what Bahya ibn Pakud writes in his book “Duties of Hearts”: “Now we should consider the six main topics regarding speculation First one concerns the essence and authenticity of contemplation

The second is whether we should contemplate the created entities or not The third is how exactly contemplation of the created entities is accomplished Fourth, how many kinds of wisdom exist in relation to the contemplated created beings The writer said: What is speculation? Nothing but the distinction of attributes in Divine wisdom in created beings and their knowledge in accordance with the abilities of the knower " From this difference, between the approach of p

Nachman and the approach of Maimonides and other medieval philosophers, there are completely different practical approaches When Maimonides says that man must know the wisdom of creation, he sends a person to study, read books, he says: "Come on, I will teach you," and begins to expound in detail the physics of Aristotle – the quintessence of modern science for him, he allegedly leads a person to the library, to the physical department, and instructs him in the wisdom of creation, so that he may be filled with admiration Rabbi Nachman, on the contrary, says quite the opposite

He comes to his student and says: “Let's go for a walk Close the books, come out of beit midrash, from the library, and let's go for a walk Look at the herbs, listen to their song, stay among them and your prayer will change ” Let's read what else p Nachman talked about this so we can see what makes the r

Nachman from the Kabbalistic tradition of doing such things "Know that every shepherd has his own particular tune, corresponding to the herbs and the place where he feeds, for each cattle has its own grass, which it needs for food The shepherd does not always feed in one place And depending on the grass and the place, another tune appears For each blade of grass has its own song, what is said in the “Strophe from the Song of Creation” and from the song of the grass is composed by the shepherd’s tune Rabbi Nachman speaks here about the connection between the song of herbs and the prayer of man

He says that every person, every shepherd, has a special tune, depending on where the person is spends time, from cattle among which is “But the melody also benefits the shepherd himself, for since he is always among the cattle, it could happen that the cattle would lead the shepherd down from the human spirit to the animal soul, so that the shepherd would begin to feed himself, as it is written, “His brothers went to feed their father’s cattle,” and Rashi interprets: "Let us feed ourselves," and thanks to the melody the shepherd is saved from it, for the chant is the purification of the spirit, the release of the human spirit from the animal soul, as it is said: “Who knows: Does the spirit of the sons of men rise up, and the spirit of animals descend down to the earth?” for the essence of the tune is to collect and release the spirit of good, as explained elsewhere And therefore, thanks to the melody, the shepherd gets rid of the animal soul, because thanks to the melody the human spirit is released from the animal soul " We see that p Nachman denotes a pastoral on which a shepherd goes to herd a flock with a pipe, Rabbi Nachman knows that not everyone grazing cattle becomes more spiritualized

He says that because of working with animals, he can just go down to their level He says that a person needs active work Not every person who spends time in nature and communicates with cattle, becomes more spiritual, but a person must make a lot of effort to what he sees, shift into a song He must collect the sounds of the tune he hears into his own song Nigun is the festive and spiritual side of things

A person can live without seeing the festive and spiritual side of reality Rabbi Nachman calls for listening to the tune and, having done this, the person gets rid of the animal soul, releasing the human spirit Man lives life, not only on the material, physical, level, but also coming into contact with its spiritual layers, here shown as the song of every thing, and so he builds his spirituality, his chant Rabbi Nachman uses an interesting concept here – “the stanza from the Song of Creation” He says: "each blade of grass has its own song, as stated in the" Trinity from the Song of Creation

" The “strophe from the Song of Creation” is a special concept in Jewish culture Today, the “Strophe from the Song of Creation” is known to us as the name of a certain text, in which different animals and different representatives of the created world, for example, mountains, rivers and so on, they offer a song to God, and they do it by quoting verses from the Psalms and other books This concept, the stanza from the Song of Creation, is found already in the Talmud It says that every person who recites a verse from a song of creation every day will be honored in the world to come But until the 10th century, we do not know what this "Verse of the Song of Creation" is, but since the 10th century we see that by “Strophe of the Song of creation” is understood a certain text, and we have it

Read from it a small excerpt to penetrate his spirit Chapter 1 Heaven proclaims: "Heaven preaches the glory of God, and the firmament proclaims the works of His hands" The earth proclaims: “the Lord is the earth and that which fills it, the universe and everything that lives in it,” and also “From the edge of the earth we hear a song:“ Glory to the Righteous! ” The garden proclaims: "Rise up the wind from the north, and come from the south, blow into my garden, and they will pour the flavors of it! “Let my lover come to his garden and taste the sweet fruits of it” Gehenna declares: and so on Chapter 4 Rooster yells

When the saint, blessed be He, is the righteous in the garden of Eden, all the trees of the Garden of Eden, they sing their voices and sing jubilant songs and hymns of praise, and then a rooster awakens and praises For the first time, he shouts: “Lift up the gates, top your, and rise, eternal doors, and the King of glory will enter!” The pigeon proclaims “I yearned like a pigeon; my eyes looked sad to heaven " Eagle, swallow, fly

The frog proclaims: “Blessedly glorious name of his kingdom forever!” What does this text mean, called the “Verse of the Song of Creation”? This question was addressed by many Jewish thinkers, mostly Kabbalists, taken him seriously Yosef Albo explains that the meaning of "Stropes from the Song of Creation" is moral behavior, it is the ethos that man must learn moral values ​​from animals, from cattle, from the entire created world You need to learn diligence from an ant, cleanliness from a cat, and so on That is, the “Strophe from the Song of Creation” has become the norm of behavior Kabbalists understood this text in a completely different way

We will look at two examples The first example is the look of Rabbi Moshe Cordovero, and the second is Rabbi Yitzhak Luria Let's start with Moshe Cordovero "The creatures, small and great, animals and forest animals, primary elements and all that consists of them, both in the world of inanimate creations, and in the flora and fauna, have no reward, what our teachers hinted at, blessed memory, saying: “An animal for the sake of man,” that is, they all have designated patrons, and these patrons sing songs of praise to their Creator, and their chants rise up and bring down the light of the Infinite, which gives them vitality, as it is said: “Praise the Lord from the heavens,” and then the whole Psalm And this is called the "stanzas of the Song of Creation," of which is formed a single Song, ascending upward, and hints at this mystery "A stanza from the Song of Creation," saying: “What does the sky say? Earth proclaims what? What do the winds say? What does the dog say? What does the cat say? etc

" And this Song is lifted up and united by the efforts of a worldwide patron, called Metatron, since he is responsible for singing all the singers, to collect and bring everything in, to perceive the light of being from the lower worlds and give them a certain feed and pour grace on them So if a person sings a song of praise, all the other songs join him, so his song rises above all songs and hymns, and they all fall into his power ” Undoubtedly, the words of Moshe Cordovero speak in the words of r

Nachman We even see the idea that we have already encountered: “as each blade of grass lifts a song to the Most High without any calculation, without extraneous thoughts, without expecting any reward! ” This idea that animals do not expect any reward is also in Moshe Cordovero’s, and she repeats then at p Nachman Moshe Cordovero also raises the question of how a person’s chant is made up of a combination of different tunes, exalted by the beasts and other representatives of the created world There is also a magical aspect – the fact that man causes the descent of grace through the tune – Moshe Cardovero and Rabbi Nachman also have, although we did not see this in the last passage read

But here you can see a big difference between the words Cordovero and r Nachman We ask ourselves the question: who, according to Moshe Cordovero, is singing a song? He says that they are designated patrons, a special kind of angels, some heavenly creatures, singing songs of praise on behalf of animals, animals, on behalf of everything And p Nachman says that the herbs themselves are singing, that you can go out into the field and hear them singing, singing the herbs themselves

And again this brings us to another world Look at the words of Isaac Luria “What is the essence of“ The stanzas of the Song of Creation ”? Know that after all all created entities have a heavenly patron, and it is in this deeper meaning of the above: “There is not a single blade of grass in the lower world that does not have a star that influences it from above and orders:“ Grow! ”” And now, through this patron, the life force descends upon him, however, this patron cannot have any effect without first raising a song, and through this song he receives nourishment and vitality to influence the lowest spheres It turns out that all these songs are sung by heavenly patrons and higher realms And verily it is written in the "Verse of the Song of Creation," that whoever chants a Song daily honored by many virtues I believe that the meaning of this is that, as is known, man is created in the image of God, and just as all higher spheres depend on the “Divine Body”, all lower created beings depend on the “body” of the lower man, and they all receive through him blessing, and therefore a person who declares the Song of Creation, who knows how to include all created beings and thereby announcing all their individual songs, causes the descent of grace on all created entities without exception " Here we see the connection between the “Strophe of the Song of Creation” and the tune of the grass Here is the expression p Nachman "no blade of grass" looks like this: "There is not a single blade of grass in the lower world that does not have a star affecting it from above

" But here, too, we see that, in accordance with the teachings of Yitzhak Luria, the angels are the heralds And the role of man – when a person is honored with the virtues mentioned in the Strophe of the Song of Creation? – When he reads the text "Strophes from the Song of Creation," understanding everything that is written there For Yitzhak Luria, "The Verse of the Song of Creation" is the title of the text, the explicit and secret meanings of which man must understand Unlike p Nachman, calling to go out into nature and listen to the very song of creation

Ideas that are closer to the views of p Nachman, which is not surprising, we begin to find the ideas of Hasidim We will see this in the following text, a passage from the Praise to Israel of the Baal Shem Tov Besht was the founder of Hasidism and the great-grandfather of r Nachman

It will be about an interesting case that happened to Besht and his student – p Arie Leib of Polonny It so happened that Rabbi and Mentor r Arie-leyb from Polonny passionately desired to learn understanding the language of animals, animals and birds and the language of palm trees, as it took him to preach And since he had godly intentions, he decided to go to Besht and ask him to teach him this wisdom

And he was confident that Besht would fulfill his desire, the good intentions of his most pious And so he came to Besht On the way from the night, Besht told the Mentor to transfer him to his cart He sat down to him Besht told him: “I don’t know that you came to me only to to learn to understand the language of birds and so on? Let me train you well

Here is an introduction It is known that the High Chariot has the face of the Bull, the face of Man, the face of the Eagle, the face of Leo The most elected in the Chariot is the face of a Man, and from him the life force descends to a long man And from the higher face of the Bull, going down from step to step, descending, plunging and diminishing, comes life force to earthly livestock Here is the mystery of the "Song of Creation

" For speech, which is peculiar to one or another creature in the High Chariot, comes down to cattle, beasts and birds And therefore, the one who is wise and thinks with his mind, and peers into the origins of all things and the Most High Chariot, he can, grasping the essence of the matter, comprehend in detail all the diversity of the speech of cattle, animals and birds This is in general terms But the details And he began to reveal great and wondrous secrets to him, until the Mentor did not comprehend everything thoroughly

And Besht, revealing to him the deepest secret of this wisdom, explained at the same time several difficult places from the Zohar and the Decoration of the Zohar And the one with one ear listened to it, and the others what the birds say and what the beasts are talking about He gave all these secrets to him on the way, even before they reached the city And when they approached the city, Besht asked him: “Have you well understood this wisdom?” And he said to him: “Oh yes!” Besht ran his hand in front of the Mentor, and all the secret details of this wisdom flew out of his head And only the introduction remained in the memory

Besht laughed and said: "If you really needed this wisdom, if it were useful to you to serve the Creator, I myself would hurry to teach you And I taught you this wisdom to quench your thirst And it flew out of your head because your ministry is not in it Be simple "The smart will understand" The novelty of the Besht idea lies in the fact that the humming of herbs and animals can be heard in nature The new is fed here gradually One ear r

Arie-Leib hears Besht's explanations – he listens to a lesson, Besht explains a passage to him from the Zohar and all his secret meanings But with the other ear he is already beginning to hear the animals themselves, the herbs themselves Here the idea begins to be traced, that the deep meaning of "The stanza from the Song of Creation", even if its basis – in the text, is to listen directly to the song of creation, in nature Another interesting example of the fact that in Hasidism, “the strophe from the Song of Creation” is no longer just a text, but directly the song of herbs in nature, we will see in the next source “After the death of Magid from Mezherich, his disciples began to discuss among themselves his actions and deeds, trying to understand them

Rabbi from Lyad (Shneur Zalman from Lyad, founder of Chabad’s Hasidism) told them: “Is there anyone among you who knows why our teacher used to be daily do you go for a walk in the dawn to the lakes and ponds in which frogs croak? ” And there was no one among them who knew the plan of Magid in this matter Then Rabbi from Lyad said to them: “I will reveal to you the plan of our teacher: he went to practice the song that the frogs proclaim to the Most High, as explained in the Strophe from the Song of Creation He wanted to hear exactly how they extol and glorify the Most High ” Magidu was familiar with the text of "The stanza of the Song of Creation," but here it is told that every morning he went to listen to the frogs, so that with their help try to hear the true song, hear them praise the Lord There is a beautiful midrash, which is given in the “Strophe from the Song of Creation” that, when King David finished writing the Psalms, he was filled with pride

Then he met a frog who told him: “Do not be so proud, I am offering every day a song to the Lord, which is better than all your Psalms” To emphasize the innovation of the words p Nahman including in relation to the ideas of Besht, let's go back to the story from Praise Besht Besht sees in the Strophe from the Song of Creation, the part The Structure of the Chariot And therefore, he, first, calls the "Verse from the Song of Creation" a mystery (sod), "the mystery of the Song of Creation

" That's why he says: “And therefore he who is wise and thinks with his mind, and peers into the origins of all things and the Most High Chariot, he can, grasping the essence of the matter, comprehend in detail all the variety of speech of cattle, animals and birds " Besht uses the words "one who is wise and thinks with his mind" These are words from the Hagiga Talmudic Treatise, which discusses the circumstances under which one can teach the secrets of the Torah – “The Structure of the Chariot” (Maase Merkava) and the “Act of Creation” (Maase Bereshit) It says that the “Structure of the Chariot” can be taught only to one student, but only under the condition that he is "wise and thinks with his mind" That is, if he himself understands everything, he can be taught

This rule concerning the “Structure of the Chariot”, Besht transfers to the secret of the “Strophes from the Song of Creation” Why does Besht connect the “Structure of the Chariot” and the “Trinity of the Song of Creation”? After all, it seems that the “Structure of the Chariot” is something completely different To understand this, read a passage from the Babylonian Talmud “Once upon a time p Yohanan ben Zakkai went riding an ass

A drover was a student p Yohanana r Eleazar bin Arah And he began to p Eleazar to ask p

Yohanana: – Teacher, teach me from the doctrine of the Heavenly Chariot “Didn’t I teach you,” answered p Yohanan – that this subject is allowed to touch only in conversation with one person and then with the one who is able to comprehend much with his own mind? – In that case, permit me, teacher, to repeat before you something of what you taught me “Good,” said p Yohanan And, getting off the donkey, he wrapped himself in a blanket and sat down on a stone under an olive tree

– Teacher, why did you dismount? – asked p Eleazar – Is it permissible that at the time when you talk about the “Structure of the Chariot”, the Shekhina will come to us and the Angels of Service will accompany us – is it permissible for me to sit on a donkey at this time! Started p Eleazar set forth the doctrine of the Heavenly Chariot And the fire fell from the sky, and the flames engulfed all the trees around

And the trees sang a song of praise: "Praise the Lord from the earth, great fishes and all the chasms, fire and hail, snow and fog, stormy winds, He who fulfills his word, the mountains and all the hills, the trees are fruitful, and all the cedars Hallelujah! " And the voice of the angel sounded from the flame: – Verily, such is the structure of the Chariot Rose p Yohanan, kissed r Eleazar to the head and said: – Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who gave descendant to Abraham, who was able to investigate, comprehend and explain the “Structure of the Chariot”

One interprets well, but performs poorly, the other performs flawlessly, but does not know how to interpret clearly And you, Eleazar, and teach well, and perform well Good for you, our father Abraham, that Eleazar is your descendant! ” It is worth paying attention to the connection and similarity, the analogy of two stories In both cases, we see a teacher and a student, walking together, the student asks his mentor to teach him "The Structure of the Chariot" In both cases, the student asks for this, and in both cases, the teacher tells him: "You know that you can not tell this to someone who is not wise and does not think with his mind

" In both cases, after the usual explanation aimed at comprehension by the mind, or simultaneously with it, empirical comprehension follows, empirically Rabbi Arie-Leyb with one ear hears a song of herbs, and at the words of r Eleazar ben Arah from the sky falls fire and they also hear how the whole creation raises a song In any case, we see that the Angel spoken of in the Talmud speaks from the flame: "Verily, such is the structure of the Chariot" He says this about the song of herbs

That tune that the grass proclaims and is, in fact, the “Structure of the Chariot” So we see that already in the times of the Talmud there existed a source claiming that "The Structure of the Chariot", its strongest side, its peak, its practical side – not to understand how angels live in a high world and to see a certain heavenly chariot, but how to hear God in creation, to see the beauty of creation, to hear the song of creation This is called the "Structure of the Chariot" And we return to the difference between Besht and r Nachman

Besht, although he links the “Structure of the Chariot” with the “Strophe of the Song of Creation,” gives an explanation that it is impossible to instruct in this one who is “not wise and does not think with his mind", therefore, he, in fact, and holds his hand in front of Arieh Leib's eyes, making sure that he forgot everything he taught Why? Apparently, Arie-Leyb was not wise and could not think with his mind That is, in Besht, the theme “Stropes from the Song of Creation” remains esoteric He says to Arieh Leibu: “You do not need this to serve the Creator” And p

Nachman says to every person, even every shepherd, to ordinary people: “Come out of your house, listen to the song of creation” "He then returned from Lemberg and was still at the mercy of consumption, so he went daily out of town on recreational walks, and also for the sake of other formidable plans that he put into it, and during our walks we happened to hear from his holy lips many teachings, conversations and terrible stories about the extraordinary, and among other things, one speech, which began with the words: "Know that when a person prays in a field " about a verse that says: "Isaac went into the field to reflect

" It was told when we went for a walk with him and stopped in the field we descended from the wagon, he remained seated in the wagon, and we settled around At that moment, the time for the afternoon prayer came, and we gathered to pray right there, and then he uttered the aforementioned lecture, in which it is said that when you pray in the field, then all the herbs join the prayer Look in the appropriate place And then he said that just as we stand around him, all herbs are also worth it, and every blade of grass tends to push through to each of the people standing, to ascend and penetrate his prayer, as stated in the aforementioned teaching ” This is another story about a mentor on a donkey or in a cart, on the road with his students

But here, unlike previous sources, the teacher says to his students: go out to pray, look – I see with my own eyes how blade of grass wants to merge into your prayer Herbal penetration into prayer also has mystical and magical levels But there are simple psychological levels that can be seen in the following text "And he said then that in winter all the herbs and plants die, because in winter their strength runs out, and they are then like the dead, and when spring comes, they all wake up to life, and the world is filled with beauty and grace When they go "to think in the field [la-Suah]", and the conversation [siha] is prayer, supplication, and loving yearning for the Most High, all the field bushes [siah], which begin then to be reborn to life and grow, in their longing they join the meditation and prayer of a person, and many more wonderful words were in that conversation

” R Nachman says to his students: spring is outside the window! Until now, plants were in the ground, like the dead or embryos And now spring is birth and growth And you go out, become a part of this update, you will update too, so that your prayer will be refreshed See what spring is in the world, and be a part of it

I want to talk about one more interesting thing, which is near r Nachman associated with the theme of the song This is the connection between song and faith In the text we are about to read, p Nachman talks about the different types of heresy that exist in the world

He says that there is such a heresy from which one can be freed, one can repent About this we will read what a heretic needs to answer And there is such a heresy from which it is impossible to get rid of To most people, says r Nachman, don't even have to ask such questions – nothing will help them

The righteous should also be asked questions of heresy, in which one cannot repent What is the righteous to do with these questions? We will read about it in the following lecture (At least the beginning) “But know that if there is a great righteous, like Moses, he just needs to be interested in such speeches of apostates, let them not even agree with the Torah, as I said above By studying apostasy, he rescues fallen and mired souls from there, for all apostate doubts and questions come from an empty place like silence, for there is not enough intelligence and letters to reconcile them with the Torah And therefore, the doubts that flow from there are like silence And know that a righteous man, like Moses, with his melody rescues souls from the apostasy of the empty place into which they fell ” Rabbi Nachman describes two stages in the matter of the righteous with respect to matters for which at first glance there are no answers The first stage is silence

People tend to talk about everything People tend to think that everything can be spoken, expressed, expressed in words, sentences, rational speeches And p Nachman says that the first wise step of the righteous is to be able to keep silent There are things that should not be talked about, at the mention of which one should be silent

The second stage is the chant First, you need to silence rational speech, and then comes the turn of the tune of the righteous, who can rescue a man hitting apostasy Let's read a little more about what this chant is “For know that every science in this world has its own particular tune and its own melody, such a tune, which is peculiar only to this science, and it is from it that it comes, as it is said: "Sing all things wisely," for reason and wisdom have a tune and a tune, and even apostate science has a tune and a tune, peculiar only to her It turns out that every science, in accordance with its level, has a tune and a melody that belong only to her, and so on every level, for higher wisdom has a higher melody and tune, in accordance with its dignity And so it is higher and higher up to the very starting point of creation, from which the emanation begins, and there is nothing higher above it, and there is nothing beyond wisdom on this level, but only the light of the Infinite The wisdom of the light of the Infinite cannot be known and comprehended, since the Infinite is the Most High Himself, and His wisdom is absolutely unknowable, at this level, only faith acts when they believe in Him, blessed is He And faith also has its own special melody and melody ” What does Rabbi Nachman claim? He says that every science has its own tune He says that even a very high philosophy is based on a kind of intuition, which is not always completely clear sometimes all the efforts of philosophy are directed precisely at explaining this intuition He says that this happens at every new level of science, at every step, until it reaches faith in the Infinite

But at the level of faith in the Infinite, there is no longer any science, which can be expressed in words; there, in fact, there exists only a chant Chant for r Nachman is here a layer with power, meaning, but which cannot be put into words, this is what happens with music We feel that in music there is a power capable of touching, pleasing, and grieving us, in which there is something sublime But music cannot be translated into the language of words

This is the connection between song and faith In faith there is a level that is expressed just by melodies and melody, and not by philosophy and words Let's look through this prism at the words of Rabbi Abraham Jacob from Sadgora, another Hassidic Rebbe "On Saturday, the Shira" was told by the rabbi from Sadgora: but at first they reached the level of perfect faith, as it is written: “and believed the Lord and Moses, his servant”, and only after that: "Then Moses sang" Only he who believes can cry out a song

” To cry a song, you need to believe It is difficult for a cynical person to relate to anything that does not have a physical, material form a song Why would he poetize the speech of heaven and the beauty of a flower, if everything is just a botany, a physical, ordinary world Therefore, this connection exists: a believing person can cry out a song The development of this thought we will see in the words of Rav Kuk

"The concept of faith includes the poetry of life, the poetry of reality, the poetry of being, because poetry is it is the most penetrating feeling of the inner depth of a concept, its inner content, which is not amenable to prosaic comprehension Therefore, the true reflection of life is precisely the poetry of life, and not everyday life, expressed in prose Woe to those who want to take the life of its poetic magnificence, for it loses all its content and all its truth Prose derives its value solely from its connection with the poetry of life " It is clear that Rabbi Cook engages in dialogue with people who say that poetry is only a subjective thing, unreal, unreal

But speaking in prose is clear, solid, true Rabbi Kuk says that poetry reveals a deeper layer of reality Moreover, he says that the value of prose, of everything that a person does in science, medicine, industry, It relies on that layer of reality, which comes from poetry After all, what is the meaning of medicine, if we assume that a person is not valuable? What is the meaning of production, if we assume that society, humanity does not have value? And when you begin to explain what the value of a person is, you begin to express in poetic language You stop talking about the physical world, moving to a more solemn, poetic, lyrical style

You begin to speak in a poetic language that exposes the spiritual, solemn side of life And this side gives life the value for which prose is worth living Finally, let's take a look at a poem by Zelda Schneerson-Mishkovskaya (1914–1984) She was born and lived in Ukraine, later moved to Palestine As the forefather Abraham, That the constellations considered at night, What appealed to his Creator, From the furnace, What bound his son – That was my grandfather

The same whole faith Among the flames And the same dewy look, And a soft wavy beard It was snowing on the street They were growling on the street: “Everything is allowed” And in his flaky and ravaged room Sang cherubs About highland Jerusalem At the heart of the poem is the analogy between the images of the grandfather, the real grandfather of Zelda and the biblical Abraham

The similarity between them is equally solid faith In the first line, she describes the faith of Abraham “I considered constellations at night” is a reference to the promise of God to Abraham that he will have as many descendants as the stars he counts in the sky And Abraham, already an old man, believed in God And this was one of the trials of his faith

Then she says: “What was crying to his Creator from the furnace” This is a reference to the midrash, in which King Nimrod threw Abraham into the furnace, because he did not agree to serve the idols, but Abraham was saved And the last, of course, is the sacrifice of Abraham – the most important test of faith for Abraham But then Zelda said that her grandfather had the same whole faith What is the test of faith for him? She writes that “They roared on the street:“ Everything is allowed ”” (on the street they roared – “No trial!” And “No judge!”)

That is, there is no justice in the world and there is no one who would judge and administer justice And in the room of the grandfather – the song of cherubs about highland Jerusalem is heard What is the test grandfather? His test is the ability to hear this song The faith of Abraham was tested in many ways, and the greatest test was the offering of Isaac In contrast to this test, the grandfather had the ability to hear the song

Zelda, in fact, says that in our generation the test of faith is not when people are required to to sacrifice your own son, it is not when a person is thrown into the furnace to understand whether he believes or not The modern test of faith is the ability of a person to attain such balance, purity and confidence in his inner world, in which he is able to hear a song, hear the solemn, spiritual side of life This, in general, holds faith Zelda does not believe that such a test is incommensurable in strength and difficulty with the sacrifice of Abraham Such is the test of faith in the modern world

In the midst of all this turmoil, the cries of "everything is allowed," erupting from reality itself, from the common culture surrounding man, in the midst of all this is the opportunity to hear the song of angels – incredibly difficult task This is the basis of faith in the modern world