Out of the Fiery Furnace – Episode 6 – From Alchemy to the Atom

Out Of The Fiery Furnace is brought to you by a company that makes aluminum for transportation, construction, and manufacturers of consumer products all around your house At least 10,000 years have passed since man began to use metals in their natural state

Perhaps 8,000 years have elapsed since he first began to smelt metals out of the living rock Using the metallic elements was one thing Understanding what distinguished one from another and why they behaved as they did had to await the age of science Less than 200 years have passed since John Dalton worked out the mathematical relationship of the atoms of matter, laying the foundations of modern physics and chemistry There were theories long before Dalton

By the Middle Ages, many weird and wonderful notions about the source of particular metals had been erected on Aristotle's basic elements of earth, air, fire, and water Those hopeful speculators were the alchemists "From Alchemy to the Atom" This was the world inhabited by the alchemists In the vaults of their laboratories and among the flames and crucibles, they sought an explanation of their universe The medieval alchemists devoted an intense effort to the study of the nature of minerals

Their fantasies and their concoctions were among the more obscure and uncertain additions to the store of human knowledge The alchemists' muse was fire Fire was the instrument with which they tried to force open doors to enlightenment They sought to use it as those modern-day alchemists, the nuclear physicists, have used the neutron to prise open the greatest doors which forever remained shut in the face of alchemy The obsession of the alchemists was with the transmutation of metals, and in particular, the possibility of synthesizing gold

They had a central belief that in the molten fires beneath the earth's crust, baser metals were constantly undergoing transmutations into nobler ones In those satanic depths, they thought lead became silver and silver, gold It followed, therefore, that the aim of nature itself was to transform all metals into gold That was the process they sought to master In doing so, they anticipated they were fulfilling the very design of nature itself

The key word in the alchemists' vocabulary was transmutation Gold was not simply a symbol of wealth It lay at the end of a progression towards a utopian result In those days of plague and pestilence, when life was measured in much shorter and more violent spans, the transmutation the alchemists sought was that from sickness to health, old age to youth– immortality, the elixir of life The lingering attraction of their preoccupations has endured into our modern writing, as with Jekyll and Hyde and Oscar Wilde's Dorian Gray

it was a rainbow which always receded No gold lay at the end of their endeavors The alchemists died poor Their dreams were not realized until our own times, when the nuclear physicists began to investigate the radioactive metals and grasp the awesome knowledge of how to transmute elements not into gold, but into something more potent–energy But first, the origins of the elements themselves had to be established

In Europe, the question of how the metals and other elements in the Earth's surface were randomly formed and distributed perplexed philosophers well into the 18th century Only then did the obscurantist clouds of the alchemists' experiments begin to clear in the enlightenment of the Renaissance There began to emerge the first real insight and grasp of the Earth's nature and its metallic ores and stones One of the most fundamental developments towards the discovery of a new science, geology, was taken in a city built itself strongly of stone–Edinburgh By the middle of the 18th century, a group of brilliant and innovative Scots were all contemporaries and students in an environment of progress and scientific inquiry at universities and forums for the exchange of scientific thought

Some of the most outstanding of them were one man's pupils Neither his bust nor his portrait are found at Edinburgh University He was Andrew Plummer the 18th-century chemist he successfully developed the curiosity and talent of a rare collection One of his students was Dr

Joseph Black, who worked on theories of heat leading to the development of the first efficient steam engine by Matthew Boulton and James Watt There was one other pupil of Plummer's whose theories were branded as heresies, but eventually became predominant He provided the first real understanding of our planet's nature, and he laid the foundations for a new science of which today he is acknowledged as the father That science was geology, and his name was James Hutton Hutton was an 18th-century all-rounder, typical of his times

He had independent means He was a farmer, lawyer, physician, and chemist, but above all, an observant and curious man Living in Edinburgh, Hutton's eyes and inquiring intellect turned upon the great rock which juts above the city– Arthur's Seat He pierced the superficial commonplace that the rock was deposited in distinct, cakelike layers His insight led him to see in this pattern an explanation of the rock's past

In the following years, Hutton, by studying and recording rock formations in parts of the Scottish highlands, constructed the coherent architecture of a new science In 1785, he published a book, Theory Of The Earth, in which he interpreted what he called "The Beautiful Machine" that constantly creates, wears down, and renews the surface of the planet Hutton gave the first unified theory of the welling up of volcanic rock, its erosion and deposition as sediment on the ocean floor, and, eventually, its uplift by movements of the Earth's crust to form the sedimentary rocks we see around us It was this cycle that Hutton first began to recognize in Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh Hutton's views were not at first accepted

His comment that in nature he found "no vestige of the beginning, no prospect of an end" was too heretical for a society which had yet to confront Darwin's theory of evolution By the 19th century and largely because of Hutton, the rocks were coming under more scientific scrutiny As a result, Provence, in southern France, figured in a chain of events which conceded an entirely new kind of metal This part of France has a human history as dramatic as it looks Called Les Baux, this rocky stronghold was a redoubt of medieval Europe

It dates from 1,000 years ago, when perspectives were smaller and those who fortified this eyrie dwarfed all those who lived on the plain We should be skeptical about the myths which surround discovery by accident, which is usually the reward of slow, painstaking steps from outmoded ideas But the ally of all such discoveries is invariably curiosity, a keen sense of observation, and a willingness to get off the beaten track All those conditions were fulfilled at Les Baux in 1821 A young chemist and amateur geologist called Berthier was wandering through this famous chaos of rock formations when he saw just over here something which was dramatically conspicuous in the white limestone hillsides

What Berthier saw was this– stark red band in the rock He examined it and recognized it as being something which had been provoking and intriguing the scientists of Europe The name he gave to it creates the link between this historic region and one of the modern world's important elements Berthier named his red stuff after Les Baux– "bowkseet," or bauxite as we now know it– the ore from which we get the most common metal in the age of the common man– aluminum Bauxite is still being mined at Les Baux

It's a simple operation, as mining goes However, the trail from Berthier's discovery of the first large deposit 150 years ago to the present was no straightforward path No less than 1 part in 10 of the Earth's crust is aluminum It's a staggering fraction It's almost everywhere, not just in the red bauxite where it's commercially available

No matter where you live, if you scoop up some dust, the chances are, it'll contain aluminum Why is it that this most abundant of all our metals, whose existence was suspected by scientists for centuries, was for so long undiscovered? How was it that this most obliging of metals today was for so long so unyielding? The problem with aluminum is that it doesn't exist in a pure state It's invariably oxidized It's bound to oxygen with chemical links so strong that normal smelting methods cannot reduce it Until the late 19th century, aluminum could only be separated from its ore by a difficult chemical process that made it extremely rare and valuable

In making this helmet for Denmark's King Frederick the VII in the last century, the aluminum for the base would have been more expensive than the gold decoration The new metal's rarity and soft, silvery character reserved it, at first, for art and for ornament Napoleon III was among the first to enthuse about one of aluminum's most useful properties– its lightness He ordered the imperial crests on the French army's standards to be made of aluminum to make them easier to carry It was in these misty valleys high in the French Alps– this is St

Jean de Maurienne– that aluminum from bauxite was first produced on an industrial scale at the end of the 19th century The place was dictated by the requirements of the electrolytic smelting process It needed huge supplies of the new energy source, electricity Electricity in those quantities at that time came only from power generated by mountain rivers The discovery of this method of large-scale aluminum production was made simultaneously but independently by Paul Heroult in France and Charles Hall in the U

S what is called the Hall-Heroult process is still the basis of aluminum production all over the world The basic reaction takes place in pots of molten chemicals in which the purified bauxite is dissolved When very large currents of electricity are passed through the pots, the aluminum is reduced and collects in the bottom At intervals, it's tapped off while fresh aluminum oxide is added to maintain a continuous output

Aluminum has been produced on a useful scale for less than 100 years It's second only to iron and steel in its practical applications The reason is its versatility Its properties combine the virtues of many metals However, a price must be paid for extracting aluminum– a staggering cost in electricity

Aluminum is the only metal to be smelted this way But once made, it can be recycled indefinitely Aluminum is the child of the electrical age Making it in large quantities requires prodigious supplies of power The means of generating electricity was discovered in London in 1821, the year that Berthier found the first extensive deposits of bauxite at Les Baux

At that time, the center of scientific thought and experimentation in England was the Royal Institution near Piccadilly During the last two centuries, the names of those who have stood here in the Royal Institution read like a roll call of the rise of science Among the many historic discourses delivered here, few were as significant as four lectures on chemistry given between February and April 1812 by Sir Humphrey Davy, who was then President of the Royal Institution Davy was not just an eminent scientist, but a brilliant lecturer, a man of great charm and vitality, and in this theater he had created a large, new, and enthusiastic audience for science Sitting there in 1812 was a young man of 21, a bookbinder's apprentice, the son of a blacksmith, Michael Faraday

Faraday had left school at 13, painfully aware that he spelled poorly, but an omnivorous reader of books he bound, dedicated to self-improvement Humphrey Davy was his hero But were it not for a happy gesture– he had been given tickets to davy's lectures by one of his master's customers– Michael Faraday, bookbinder's apprentice, might not have become anything other than Michael Faraday, bookbinder But he emerged from that apprenticeship an ardent, passionate chemist He made notes of Davy's lectures and sent a copy to Davy

These are the actual notes that Faraday took and which he bound Humphrey Davy could hardly fail to be impressed, so impressed he gave Faraday a job as assistant in the laboratory at the Royal Institution at a salary of 25 shillings a week From that first step came momentous advances Michael Faraday embarked upon a career of discovery unparalleled in the history of pure experimental science in the fields of chemistry and metallurgy He made possible the practical application of the most useful form of energy in the modern world– electricity

There was a widespread preoccupation with this newly discovered invisible force called electricity that could make sparks fly There was awareness, too, of another mysterious force that powerfully attracted iron How closely these forces of electricity and magnetism were related it was left to Faraday to discover and demonstrate In 1821, in the downstairs laboratory of the Royal Institution, which, incidentally, has not changed since the time he worked here, Faraday set up this experiment He had one of the early batteries and this apparatus, two wine glasses filled with mercury

Here, a bar magnet stands upright and fixed Here, the bar magnet is free to move Above each glass, a wire In this case, the hanging wire, which just touches the mercury, is suspended from a hook In this case, the wire, or conductor, is fixed

wires from the apparatus, from the conductors and the glasses, come back to the battery Faraday took this wire and completed the circuit In this case, the hanging wire, or conductor, rotates around the magnet And when he disconnected this one and connected this one the process was reversed, and the magnet moves around the wire

So what you're watching is the principle which lay behind the development of the world's first electric motor The principle of electromagnetic rotations, as Faraday called it, depends upon the reaction between the magnetic field and the flowing electric current It's the basis of every modern device driven by an electric motor Faraday didn't leave it there For the next 10 years, he kept thinking about the relationship between electricity and magnetism

He had a feeling for symmetry in nature and its forces He was convinced that if electricity and magnetism could produce movement, then movement and magnetism should produce electricity In 1831, he showed this to be true in a demonstration which was even more significant Faraday made his great discovery with an apparatus of elegant simplicity, a coil of iron wire and a bar magnet Both are preserved at the Royal Institution

When Faraday took the bar magnet and moved it through the coil connected to a galvanometer, there was a clear movement of the needle Movement plus magnetism was producing an electric current in the coil Faraday found he could produce the same effect by rotating a copper disk in a magnetic field The principle of electromagnetic induction, as Faraday named it, is the basis of all the generators which light the cities and drive the machines of the modern world Michael Faraday's great mental exertions, spread over more than 40 years, produced discoveries which had revolutionary implications

They have put men everywhere in the modern world in the debt of the blacksmith's son He opened a window which let in light upon new perspectives for all who followed him His discoveries were the point of departure for many of those practical, domestic necessities we now take so much for granted The kindly, brilliant experimentalist was the first great luminary of the Electrical Age Faraday was the first to demonstrate that electricity could be made to order

The man who gave it to the world was Thomas Edison His laboratory is preserved intact with all its contents as part of the Museum of American Technology, assembled near Detroit by Henry Ford It gives some indication of the inquisitive vitality of one of the key figures of the heroic age of invention It's easy today to lose sight of the contribution Edison made to the easement of human existence The Americans, who made a business out of almost everything, made a business out of invention, too

Edison with his staff in his laboratory were the forerunners of today's systematic, institutionalized research Thomas Edison was an Everest among the sand hills in the late 19th century His was an original, creative intelligence, one of the most prolific of minds Over a career of strategic invention lasting almost 60 years, he took out over 1,000 patents He became a genuine American folk hero

When he applied for a patent for this device in December 1877, nothing resembling it was found in the vast records of the United States Patents Office This is Edison's phonograph In their exuberant determination to master nature, the Americans conquered many things, in this instance, even death itself Edison offered life after death with his resurrection of the human voice Here in a famous recording made on his phonograph in his 80s is Edison's own voice

He's been dead now for more than half a century I spoke in the original phonograph a little piece of classical poetry "Mary had a little lamb, "its fleece was white as snow "Everywhere that mary went, the lamb was sure to go" A straight line had led from Faraday to Edison

Edison, when 21, had read Faraday's description of experiments with electricity He confessed their inspiration It was in this field that Edison's own applied intelligence was to shine so brightly In what he chose to do and how he brought his mind to bear, Edison was, par excellence, the inventor who conformed to the democratic ideal in America He lay down social and political principles for himself by which he determined what he considered useful

The test was what the market would accept He made all his inventions answer that command The electric light was Edison's, and the electric lighting system as we know it today was essentially Edison's concept That was more than his invention of the first practical electric light bulb, in itself a remarkable story of tenacity and application He tried literally thousands of materials, including a human hair, before he found a filament which would glow brightly in a vacuum when a current was passed through it without burning out

But Edison's great insight was into the potential of electric lighting, at that time available only as dazzling arc lights for lighting large open spaces Once again the American mind wanted to democratize an idea Edison wrote subsequently, "I saw that what had been done "had never been made practically useful "The intense light hadn't been subdivided "so it could be brought into ordinary houses "I came home and made experiments

"I discovered the secret so simple "that a bootblack might understand it "It suddenly came to me "like the secret of the speaking phonograph It was real and no phantom" Edison restored a unity which the almighty had kept separate God divided light from darkness

Edison, for all practical purposes, made night the day Within a year, Edison had worked out the theoretical problems of subdividing electricity to supply many small lights which could be switched on and off independently Where nothing existed, everything had to be created in his workshop Dynamos, insulated cables, switches, fuse boxes, lamp holders, and meters By Christmas 1879, he was ready to try out a whole system

The first private house to be lit by electricity was this one, Sarah Jordan's Boarding House, where some of Edison's employees lived A new prospect was now within reach of millions and a new role created for copper Its softness and high conductivity made it ideal for electrical wiring Henceforth, over half the world's production of copper would be used for electricity Edison showed the way

Within three years, he fired up the first commercial city power station in New York The Edison Electric Illuminating Company went into business on September 3, 1882 85 customers were wired up to the system There were just 400 electric lights to switch on, but what a beginning it was In that final quarter of the 19th century, industrial growth in the United States exceeded all previous experience

The mass production of machines, the new consumerism, the proliferation of steel-framed buildings, the spread of electric power and telegraph networks aroused a demand for metals that traditional mining methods couldn't satisfy Richer seams of the metals had given out The cost of recovering and treating poorer grades was rising There were still vast untouched resources, but to exploit them, a new technology was needed After the settlement of Salt Lake City by the Mormons, prospectors had found rich veins of gold, silver, and copper in Utah's surrounding mountains

what followed came to have a worldwide significance In 1887, an entire mountain peak at the head of Bingham Canyon was found to be impregnated with copper However, the grades were low– no more than 2% metal While the mountain held millions of tons of copper ore, it wasn't worth sinking a shaft For over a decade, this huge deposit of copper worth tens of millions of dollars tempted and frustrated the miners

Then, a young engineer, Daniel Jackling, changed the landscape of mining all over the world Jackling's essential contribution was to envisage a wholly new dimension of open-cut mining on a vast new scale It meant creating tools capable of moving mountains Jackling's system was put into operation at the Bingham Canyon Mine in 1906 He made a hive out of his copper mountain

Immense daily tonnages of ore were taken out of the pit by train Over the following 30 years, the Bingham Canyon Mine yielded metal worth nearly $1 billion It's still profitable today, though the grade of ore is less than 1/2 of 1% of copper But Daniel Jackling solved only half the problem of using low-grade ores The other half was how to extract the metal cheaply enough

The next step began with a rewarding insight into the ancient processes of fermentation as observed in an australian brewery It was to see, in the way bubbles carried impurities to the surface, the yeast of a new technology in mining It was likely that this should happen in Australia, where beer and mining were inseparable cultures, particularly in a mining city like Broken Hill At Broken Hill, the fermentation phenomenon was applied to the treatment of lead and zinc ores When air is blown through a soup of finely ground ore, bubbles lift the metal particles and leave the crushed rock on the bottom

The froth, in this case, was richer than the substance The process was taken up on the other side of the Pacific at Bingham Canyon and worked equally well with copper Today Bingham Canyon's flotation tanks are a giant mineral brewery It is this which makes the low-grade ores worth mining The industrial nations were able to surge into the 20th century on a swelling wave of production with their raw materials assured by these Vesuvian eruptions out of new craters around the world

While Americans were mobilizing their vast new resources of minerals and energy to launch the world into the Machine Age, the Europeans were laying the foundations for an even more radical transformation Their resources were the intellectual powers of their scientists In the old universities of Europe and in the human imagination, creative energy was forming which would take science to the threshold of comprehending the greatest mystery in the physical universe– the nature of the atom and its awesome forces The revelation began with the observation of anomalous behavior in nature– in this case, the fact that some metals behaved differently from others by releasing energy no one could put a name to The first steps in identifying and understanding that energy were taken in Paris

One of the most emotional and contentious words in our language today is the term radioactivity For many, it has frightening implications– nuclear fallout, long-term contamination of the air and the things we touch, the threat of genetic damage to unborn generations To others it promises deliverance– powerful weapons against cancer, a new range of scientific and industrial tools, renewable energy resources to replace dwindling oil supplies What is beyond dispute is that the discovery of radioactivity in metallic elements like radium and uranium changed the world The term radioactivity was invented by a woman who spent the later years of her life beside this quiet courtyard in Paris

She worked in that ordinary-looking building, and before she died, she planted that white rose Her name was Marie Curie She was the Polish born wife of French physicist Pierre Curie For 60 years, the Curie family played a central role in the development of modern nuclear physics Marie and Pierre, their daughter Irene, and son-in-law Fredric Joliot all won the Nobel Prize

Their work helped lay the foundations for the atomic age Marie was working in Paris as a laboratory assistant in 1895 when she married Pierre Curie She was looking for a subject for her doctoral thesis and became intrigued by Henri Becquerel's discovery of mysterious rays emanating from salts of the element uranium She began searching for other elements that gave off the same kind of radioactivity Her husband Pierre worked with her

He discovered that this radiation consisted of particles with three different electrical charges– positive, negative, and neutral The great New Zealander Lord Rutherford was later to name them alpha, beta, and gamma rays here at the Curie laboratory, the nucleus had given up its first secrets One's always surprised by the simplicity which seems to attend so many great advances in science Using these crude devices, the Curies were able to measure the intensity of radiation

In 1898, they discovered two new radioactive elements, radium and polonium In 1903, together with Henri Becquerel, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded the Nobel Prize for physics By the beginning of this century, the door into the world of the atom had opened just a chink Pierre was killed in a street accident in Paris in 1906 Marie carried on

In that year, she became the first-ever woman professor at the Sorbonne In 1911, she won a second Nobel Prize, this time for chemistry, for determining the atomic weight of radium Then came the first World War She and her daughter Irene explored the use of X-Rays for medical purposes Throughout all those years, they received large doses of radiation

In 1918, Marie Curie moved into this office in the institute of radium in Paris, created as a result of her work It's been left as she must have known it, with her papers, experiments, and photographs Irene also came to work here, and in 1925, the two Curies were joined by a young assistant, Frederic Joliot A year later in 1926, Frederic and Irene were married In partnership, they took a new step towards that slow assembly of our picture of the atom

Frederic and Irene began with a large stockpile of highly radioactive material that had been accumulated through research by Marie By 1935, both son-in-law and daughter had won Nobel Prizes for their achievement in realizing the dream of alchemists through the ages– the first artificial transmutation of elements Frederic Joliot went on to demonstrate in 1939 a new and potentially enormous source of energy, nuclear fission His work was critical to the calculations that produced the first chain reaction in 1942 and later the atomic bomb Their record in nuclear research notwithstanding, Frederic and Irene were excluded from the secret allied wartime effort that made the nuclear bomb because of their affiliations with the Communist Party of France

But they were the creative force behind the establishment of the French atomic energy commission in 1945 That gave France an early entry into the nuclear field, breaking the Anglo-American monopoly, first with the building of a nuclear reactor in 1948 and then with France's independent armory of nuclear weapons Marie Curie herself worked here until 1934, when her lifelong involvement with radioactivity finally caught up with her 20 years later, Irene also became a victim of her great appetite for research and died from leukemia In the courtyard where Marie Curie and Irene often sat and where the rose that Marie planted still blooms, we are still very close to the dawn of the Atomic Age

When Marie Curie died, her body was bleached by a fatal anemia induced by the forces she had unmasked and whose dangers she had unknowingly exposed herself This bloodless white rose might then be a metaphor of the manner of her death and an allegory for the Nuclear Age, whose threshold she was among the first to cross Ever since Marie Curie helped mankind with knowledge of the atom, she has faced us with its choices– the expectation of continuity and renewal, or, should we fail to master the great forces she began to liberate, the prospect only of wasteland, the nuclear desert I'm Robert Raymond, the producer of this series We met two scientists who, although working in different parts of the world, shared one overriding conviction

The scientists were Michael Faraday and Thomas Edison Their conviction was that their work should be dedicated not to their own fame, but to the betterment of humankind Their contributions to the development of electric lighting is an example Today it seems that science and scientists are removing themselves from the real world, that they're no longer responsive to humanity's needs, that we've come to the point of risking survival One attempt to come to grips with this problem is being made at Pennsylvania State University in a new curriculum, science, technology, and society

Its director is Dr Rustum Roy, himself a scientist of distinction Well, my concern is that science is getting away from its connection with humanity And science, as shown in your last series here, with Edison being concerned about practicability and usefulness as major criteria– that today we've totally lost that, and science is becoming a precious activity of the few I feel that's a very dangerous situation in which the public doesn't understand this magic

It's kind of served up with certain quirky, interesting subjects, then told to pay the bill That's a development which is much to be regretted and must be changed, especially when the public is paying $10 billion a year for just our curiosity That situation will not last We must pay much more attention to the economy of the United States and to the environment and make that a principal concern of the scientific community It is no longer concerned about the economic and industrial base which supports the work we do

You mentioned $10 billion what proportion of that goes on what you call useful science? This is the portion that goes for basic research Our total R&D budget is about $100 billion– half from the public sector, half from the private This 10 billion is given more or less for curiosity Now, the unfortunate part is that the science community sells it to the public as being related to many useful things, but a very large fraction– much too large a fraction, in my opinion– goes to jigsaw puzzle solving, to many fields, such as particle physics, radio astronomy, all of which must be supported but which are getting too much emphasis in a country where technology is clearly shown to be slipping, where the public science education is in a desperate state

I feel that the amount, the balance between science and useful science– useful, basic science– has been grossly distorted How has this change come about when this country has always been interested in practical things? It's really our own fault It's the science community's fault We were the ones that neglected science education If scientists weren't concerned about science education, the public won't be

The budgets for science education, which were 50% of the National Science Foundation budget two decades ago, were zeroed out by Mr Reagan we allowed it to drop to nothing We haven't been concerned about the public's understanding of the technology and science they fund We're the ones that have set the balance between useless basic science– or what I would say unconnected basic science– and that basic science which feeds what Edison said was practical and useful

Even great theoretical scientists like Einstein would have agreed Einstein was a master If good scientists used him as a model– many scientists feel Edison was just an Edisonian crack Nobody can say that Einstein was not the quintessential scientist, but very few people know that Einstein had a large number of patents He had many more patents than papers

What were the patents on? refrigerators Einstein, in 1942, went to the Navy and said, "I'm quite a practical fellow I know something about torpedoes" The United States Navy decided where to put the engines in torpedoes on Albert Einstein's advice Einstein was a union member

He always said, as this lab's motto says, "concern for man's fate should be the chief concern of scientists" He talked about labor He talked about employment Very few scientists today know the unemployment rate They don't know what the national deficit is

I feel that every scientist who draws generous sums from the public purse should really get involved in the matters of technology What are you trying to do here? We're trying to make sure that the technological literacy of the nation– through its school system, through its television– be improved very rapidly We really are a nation of technological illiterates We're trying to work with a science community to let it clarify its own values Is basic science not properly defined as that which is closest to human need instead of that which appears in some esoteric journal? We're attacking the question and saying, within the community, what is basic science? What are our own values? And outside the community, in being concerned about the science education of the masses– not teaching them more physics, but saying, take hold of your fate

Out Of The Fiery Furnace is brought to you by a company that makes aluminum for transportation, construction, and manufacturers of consumer products all around your house Captioning is made possible by Commonwealth Aluminum Captioning performed by the National Captioning Institute, Inc Captions copyright 1986 Opus Films Public performance of captions prohibited without permission of National Captioning Institute the companion book, Out Of The Fiery Furnace by Robert Raymond, is published by the Penn State Press and is available at bookstores throughout the country